Choosing which programming language to learn can be a headache down the road. There is always a conflict on which language is good or which one is flawed. But there is no definitive answer to which language is best among them all. Whether you are a beginner or an expert programmer, there are plenty of suitable languages to learn through which you can enhance your skills. Comparing the pros and cons of the latest popular languages, we unveil the 10 best programming languages that you can learn in 2019.
For past years, Python has emerged as a favorable programming language among programmers, and it is currently considered as the beginner’s language due to its user-friendly environment. Let’s take a look at what makes Python such a widely used general-purpose language:
- It supports large numbers of platforms such as Pytorch, TenserFlow, CNTK, DyNet, etc.
- It is Object-oriented and Open-Source programming.
- Easy to code because its syntax is clear and almost similar to the English language.
- Python has a variety of applications such as Scientific computing, Machine learning, web development, and applications.
- The first issue with Python is speed; it is comparatively slower.
- Not a very suitable language for mobile development.
- It has limited database access compared to technologies like JDBC or ODBC.
- Fast speed language.
- It is a versatile language that can be inserted into any web-page regardless of the file extension.
- Reduces the server load.
- Client-side scripts can be a little unpredictable in case of generating output as it implements differently in different outputs.
- It has client-side security issues.
Java gained popularity because of being object-oriented, and it is widely used for multiple types of software applications and websites. Let’s discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Java:
- Java is easy to write, compile, and debug.
- As mentioned above, Java is completely Object-Oriented.
- Java is platform-independent.
- It has a large number of open-source libraries.
- Java has a free open-source environment.
- Java is memory consuming and comparatively slower than C/C++.
- Java has security issues and has vulnerabilities in codes.
- Increasing competition has surpassed Java.
Kotlin is specifically designed for android app development, and is preferred by Google. Let’s search for the good and bad aspects of this language:
- The first advantage of Kotlin is that it runs on JVM and provides features similar to Java. Yet, it is easier to learn and code in Kotlin.
- The language is clear and efficient; it has a concise syntax.
- Kotlin supports many IDEs, including Android Studio.
- Kotlin compiles the code at compile time which allows more stable code and fewer errors.
- Kotlin still differs from Java in many aspects, hence, additional investments in training and time will be needed if you decide to move your programming language to Kotlin.
- It is a lesser-known language, therefore, has a limited number of developers and resources to learn.
- Slow compilation speed.
PHP is a server-side scripting language that is used to make websites and web applications. It is another complete web developing language that is mostly used by the entire online web designing course.But it is also necessary to understand the advantages and disadvantages of PHP language:
- Tools and Frameworks of PHP help developers to speed up web application development.
- PHP simplifies web application development and maintenance.
- PHP runs on various platforms such as Drupal, WordPress, Joomla, etc.
- Easier to learn compared to other languages as resources are effortlessly accessible, and also because PHP maintains the readability of the code.
- PHP has security issues as its code can be easily hacked and manipulated.
- PHP programmers have to write lengthy and complex code to add features to a website.
- Lack of features development along with new technology.
- PHP is a server-side language that makes it slower in execution.
Swift is designed for iOS and OS X software, and appears to replace Objective C as the main programming language for Apple. Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of using Swift programming language that you must know about:
- Swift is an open-source and general-purpose language.
- It is easier to learn and maintain compared to other languages since it has clear syntax.
- Swift reduces the code size which means faster execution.
- Offers better safety features.
- Swift is a new language that means it will take time to discover its issues, and has a limited set of library.
- Because of newness, it has a limited number of developers and fewer resources to learn.
- Lack of compatibility with past languages.
C#(C Sharp) is an Object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft, particularly used for building Windows applications. C# is a .net language. If you decide to learn C# then here are the pros and cons to look for:
- C# is ideal for building a Windows service or a desktop app.
- C# is one of the common programming languages hence it is easy to find C# developers.
- Offers better security for source code as it is available in binary form public-view. Therefore if your server gets hacked, hackers do not gain direct access to your code.
- C# is a compiled code and it is much more difficult to work with as you have to compile your code each time you make a minor change.
- The server environment has to be Windows only to run a .net application.
- Compatibility with older versions of Windows is only available for the older version of .net.
R programming language is used for statistical computing and is widely popular among data miners for data analysis, polls, and data mining surveys. R ranks 20th in the TIOBE index as a popular programming language therefore, it is no wonder at 8th position in our list. Here are its pros and cons:
- Open-source and platform-independent programming language.
- R is ideal for data manipulation and is capable of transforming scattered data into a structured form.
- Compatible with other languages and allows the coder to interact with many data sources.
- A large community of users. Hence, it is easy to find R developers and resources to learn.
- Slower than other competitive languages.
- There is a possibility of R scripts not being compatible with newer version of the same package.
SQL (Structured Query Language) is used as a means-of-connection with relational database management systems. It is a standard database language, and its pros and cons include:
- Can be used to retrieve a large amount of data from the database quickly and efficiently.
- Does not require writing lengthy codes, short commands are used in SQL.
- Object-oriented capabilities are executed to relational database with object-oriented DBMS.
- Complex interface makes it difficult for some users to access it.
- It is costly and does not provide full control to the programmer because of security issues.
C is one of the basic languages and its newer version, C++, supports object-oriented. With so many changes in the programming world, C/C++ is still a preferred language by the programmers. The following are the pros and cons that you should bear in mind while evaluating C/C++:
- Many compilers and libraries exist which are also compatible with C/C++..
- Powerful languages to create different types of codes with better speed as it is compiled language.
- Its syntax is similar to many other languages.
- Has smaller standard library which lacks algebraic data types and custom operators.
- Little memory management.
- It is complicated and difficult to learn, and does not provide a flexible environment.
Determining the programming language to learn in 2019 depends on the interest and needs of the programmer. No matter what the survey says, as long as the language is fulfilling your requirement and has the features that you need, that language is worth learning. However, adding skills related to the latest programming language and keeping yourself updated with technological advancement is always an additional asset to your career.
About the Author:
Jyoti Yadav has more than three years of industrial experience as a Digital Marketing Analyst and Passionate Writer. She is currently working in Krademy.com. She earned a master’s degree in Computer Applications, and has hands-on experience in working with different tools like Google webmaster, Google analytics, and Google trends.